On Monday, June 18, 1995, Oklahoma City exploded as a result of a botched bomb-making operation.
The event left over 5,000 people dead, and more than 3,000 wounded.
For more than a decade, families have suffered a sense of loss and a sense that things could have been different.
But the Oklahoma city bombing has left many families feeling more confident about their lives now.
A new study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association finds that families are happier, more engaged and more satisfied.
“We have this sense that we are a better place,” said Dr. Amy A. Kallman, who led the research team.
“The families are more confident, and they are more in control of their own lives.”
Kallmann’s research found that family satisfaction was higher, more positive and less dependent on age, race or gender.
For example, women and young adults were more likely to report positive feelings and were more satisfied with their lives than older adults.
They were also more likely than older people to report high levels of satisfaction with their health, well-being, social relationships and employment.
“Our findings suggest that people’s experience with their families can have positive effects on their well-functioning relationships, such as better mental health, greater satisfaction with social relationships, and improved satisfaction with employment,” Kalliman said.
The study was published in an edition of the Journal called the Journal on Aging.
“These findings can be used to develop interventions that address some of the barriers that can slow the healing process, such with the stress of grief,” said lead author Dr. Joanne A. Smith, who works at the University of Texas Health Science Center.
“And these interventions can also reduce the stress, anxiety and depression that can often come with loss.”
The researchers studied over 5.4 million records of people between the ages of 20 and 85.
The data included the following variables: time elapsed since the blast, number of days since the explosion, number and types of injuries, deaths and suicides, and the number of years since the bombing.
In addition, the researchers measured factors related to the families’ well-fleshed-out lives: satisfaction with the lives they lead, happiness with their children and relationships with family members, and job satisfaction.
The researchers found that people with higher levels of family satisfaction reported greater happiness, more engagement in life, less stress and less depression.
“I think it is very important that we have some sort of understanding of how these people are functioning, so that we can better understand what can be done to help them in the future,” Smith said.
Kestel, who worked on the research for many years, said her research shows that the effects of bereavement can be positive and even beneficial.
“It is important that bereavement and grief are seen as a shared experience and not a one-sided experience, and that people feel like they can express themselves and be loved,” she said.
“They have some control over what happens to them and the effects it has on their families, and how they are treated by their loved ones.”
For more information on the study, visit the Journal’s website at www.jama.org/jama/article/full/a-comparative-analysis-of-a-greater-than-two-life-expectancies-after-the-oklahoma-city-bombing.
The full report is available at http://jamajournal.org/.
The full paper is also available online at www,jamaa.org.